Frequently Asked Questions About Enlightium
Does EA offer an Honors Program?
Upon registration, an EA counselor will determine if your student will be placed into the Standard or Honors program based on scores on the EA entrance tests and grades from the previous school.
Students in grades 3–8 who score above 85% for their grade level on EA entrance tests and who displayed above average performance on the previous school progress report (B and above) may be considered for EA Honor courses. Per a parent’s request and an EA counselor's recommendation/approval, this student may be enrolled in EA Honor courses. These courses demand more effort from students since they explore curricula at greater depths and degree of complexity.
The criteria for EA Honor courses for students in grades 9–12 require more rigorous evaluation of entrance tests’ results and transcript evaluation. Honor courses are identified as “HR” on EA transcripts. Additionally, Honor courses are not NCAA approved and need not be assigned to students seeking eligibility to compete as an athlete at the collegiate level. Honor courses have a weighted GPA value of +0.5 to the student’s final GPA.
The EA Standard program is less challenging than Honors, yet more advanced than public school standard courses.
How does EA assist student athletes?
EA provides NCAA approved courses for student Athletes. More information can be found on EA’s NCAA page. You can also watch the video for the testimony of a student athlete family.
Does Enlightium offer Advanced Placement (AP) or Dual Enrollment/Concurrent Credits (CC)?
Yes, Enlightium Academy offers Dual Enrollment through Northwest Nazarene University and AP Courses through College Board for grades 10–12. These types of courses demand the highest level of participation, peer collaboration, and quality of work from students. Students may need to start the AP course(s) as early as July to get ready to take the AP exam in May. The AP/CC programs allow students to participate in a college level course and earn college credits while still in high school. An EA counselor will work with parents to determine if the student would be able to manage and be successful in Honors or AP/CC courses.
Advanced Placement is identified on transcripts as “AP” and Concurrent Credits as “CC” and both have a weighted value of +1.0 to the student's final GPA.
If a student failed classes in his or her previous school, how can Enlightium Academy help?
For students who find themselves in the difficult position of falling behind academically or struggling emotionally, the EA Bridge program is designed to provide those families with the resources that help students progress. Credit recovery courses can also be taken to recover previously failed coursework or to find and fill gaps in a student’s education. Students take pre-tests on previously learned material to help identify those gaps and are assigned only the lessons based on the questions that were missed. This way, students can quickly catch up by excluding the information they already know. The EA counselor will work with parents to assign the appropriate program to ensure their student’s success. Learn more at EA's Bridge Program page.
If a student struggles academically, how can Enlightium Academy help with learning challenges?
The Bridge program will provide accommodations to the student’s coursework for a specific period of time to allow the student to get caught up and prepared to transition back after one quarter of completion (the required minimum) to a standard academic program. High school counselors will review the student’s entrance test results and their records from the previous school to determine what program would be most appropriate for the student.
What if a student has a hard time grasping academic concepts when taking online courses?
Enlightium Academy teachers will answer academic questions from your student via messages within the Ignitia platform, over the phone, or through online screen-sharing sessions, depending on the support package chosen. Between our well-written curriculum and qualified Enlightium faculty, students will receive as much help as necessary to master the material and move forward in their education.
What is the English Language Learner (ELL) Program?
Enlightium Academy’s English Language Learners (ELL) Program offers students in grades 8-12, whose first language is not English, the opportunity to receive support in English language learning through modified courses, targeted English language practice and lessons, and instruction by an ELL certified instructor. Learn more at EA’s English Language Learners (ELL) Program page.
How does Enlightium Academy work with students who need an academic intervention?
Students with learning challenges will be evaluated carefully, with consideration of the type and severity of the challenge, as well as EA’s capacity to accommodate the challenges.
Although we enroll students identified as needing Individualized Education Program (IEP) services, Enlightium Academy does not assess or update service plans. We customize curriculum, assignments, and academic standards for families that seek adaptations through a service plan in collaboration with each student’s resident district and based on the resident district created and managed Individual Service Plan (ISP). Students that would like to access our academic intervention program without a service plan will be evaluated carefully by a team of qualified EA staff in collaboration with parents.
Enlightium Academy also provides Section 504 accommodations for students with diagnosed health impairments not requiring a service plan or academic adaptations. Our ISP and 504 Coordinator will work closely with the student’s parents, teachers, guidance counselor, and Enlightium Academy’s Assistant Principal to support student success while enrolled with Enlightium Academy.
Enlightium Academy reserves the right to decline enrollment to students with learning challenges if EA lacks facilities and/or staffing to meet the needs of said student in the fullest possible way.
Does Enlightium Academy have a Gifted/Higher-Level Learner program?
Exceptional students with advanced abilities, high-performing talent, superior aptitude, and/or high-achieving capabilities beyond his or her age/grade level may be recognized in any of the following areas: intellect, creativity, artistic ability, leadership, and academic standing. The gifted program will entail an exclusive course and mentorship series where students can take their learning to the next level. Student eligibility for EA’s Gifted Track is determined by appropriate documentation, such as:
- Evidence of previous gifted identification/program enrollment
- Written nomination/referral/recommendation from a teacher, specialist, parent, counselor, administrator, etc.
- Student records, performance history, cumulative grades, teacher observations, etc.
- Assessment results i.e. IQ tests, achievement tests, standardized testing, etc.
The purpose of EA’s Gifted Program is to meet the uniquely advanced needs of gifted, talented, and highly capable learners by providing opportunities to learn and progress at individual paces, levels, and abilities. This program’s one-on-one mentoring, evidence-based practices, specialized instruction, and project-based curriculum are designed to enhance higher-level thinking, provide creative learning experiences, progress learning, maximize potential, and develop skills to solidify strengths and improve weaknesses. By learning how to learn and gaining tools to adapt, students will cultivate metacognitive and self-regulating techniques to promote brain development. Learning experiences will be student-directed and will involve peer collaboration.
EA’s Gifted Program is available for students in grades 6-8.
Are students required to use any textbooks?
The curriculum for PreK–2nd grade is textbook-based. For grades 3–12, textbooks are built into the online Ignitia platform. Students in grades 3–12 may be required to purchase additional material, typically for science and English courses. Families should review each course description for the phrase “Required Purchase”; this lists any textbooks, science equipment, and other materials needed for the course. High school students taking AP and Dual Enrollment courses have required textbooks, as noted on each AP and Dual Enrollment course overview.
How much time do students have to finish the school year?
The school year consists of 180 days, which is about nine months. Students are required to finish all work assigned within a given timeframe. Students enrolled in a one-semester course will have up to 90 school days, which is about four and a half months, to complete the course. For an additional fee, EA offers summer school to those students who need more time to complete the school year.
Does Enlightium Academy offer achievement testing?
For students in grades 3–11, Enlightium Academy provides the Stanford 10 Online Test each April. More information can be found on the Standardized Testing page.
The PSAT is offered through College Board during the month of October for students in grades 10-11. Visit www.collegeboard.com for more information on how to register.
The ACT examination is offered by ACT throughout the year. Visit www.act.org for more information on how and when to register.
SAT (Scholastic Assessment Test) examination for students in grades 11–12 is offered throughout the year. Visit www.collegeboard.org for more information and to register on time.
What is Naviance (grades 6-12) and why do I have to use it?
Naviance Student is a comprehensive college and career readiness solution that helps Enlightium Academy align student strengths and interests to postsecondary goals, improving student outcomes, and connecting learning to life.
- Naviance supports EA’s students in reaching their unique goals by connecting their passions to their future.
- It allows our students to create a personalized plan that helps them make informed decisions throughout their academic journey here at Enlightium Academy.
- Naviance connects students’ interests to their potential career paths early, ensuring active participation in their own academic success and opening their eyes to the wide world of career opportunities.
- The career planning tools allow students to understand how their strengths, goals, skills, and interest can lead to exciting careers.
- EA’s students build confidence by trying new things, pursuing what they love, and learning from their missteps in a safe environment. The Naviance platform provides that safe place.
- Naviance is a powerful college planning tool as it provides insights into financial planning, test preparation and scheduling, scholarship opportunities, college application requirements, and electronic document submission.
What is x2VOL?
x2VOL stands for Time to Volunteer, and is located within Naviance Student. To fulfill Enlightium Academy’s mission of being a light to the world for the glory of God, and of being driven to make a difference in hearts and minds, Enlightium Academy high school students are required to complete 10 hours of community service per grade level in order to graduate and receive a diploma.
To ensure accurate records and accountability, Enlightium Academy’s students are now using this online tracking and reporting system to submit all of their community service hours. x2VOL will allow EA to eliminate our paper forms and centralize all information, making it an efficient and reliable recording tool to ensure all students receive credit for their verified community service hours.
Why does my child need to take the EA entrance tests?
The tests help evaluate that the student’s knowledge from the previous school aligns with EA’s curriculum. In general, how the student scores on the Math and English Placement Tests may influence a counselor’s decision to recommend the Standard, Honors, Bridge Program, Dual Enrollment (CC), or Advanced Placement (AP) course schedules. Depending on the student’s grade level, the previous school records, and in collaboration with parents, a counselor may provide less weight to the placement tests in assigning a schedule for the student.
How does EA keep students accountable for assigned academic work?
We strive to create a flexible environment for students that encourages them to take responsibility for their education in order to help them become independent and motivated learners for life. To provide this balance, EA’s Progress Department reviews the weekly activity of each student and provides alerts to keep parents informed and students accountable. We understand there are times when a student isn’t able to keep up with the weekly schedule. For this reason, parents can submit Absence request forms as needed and the Progress Department will work with each family based on their circumstances, while still ensuring that students are on track to finish assigned coursework by the end of the school year.
What is the difference between support packages?
The Silver Package:
The Silver Package is our basic teacher-led support plan that provides the essentials for online schooling; this includes access to the curriculum, record keeping, grading, tutoring with certified teachers via messages within 24 hours during school hours, detailed feedback on essays and projects, parent-teacher conferences, and counselor support. Graded feedback response times are generally within 3 business days. Add-on products can be accessed at an additional cost, such as unique world languages, standardized testing, an early start to the school year, summer school extensions, and for high school students Advanced Placement (AP) and Dual Enrollment courses. This support plan is also the primary option available to international students. The full-time tuition for an entire school year in this package starts at $1,500 for elementary, $1,800 for middle school, and $2,100 for high school.
The Gold Package:
In addition to everything offered in the Silver Package, this package offers live tutoring through screen sharing and phone conversations. This plan is great for visual, auditory, and hands-on learners. Students can message teachers with a 1 hour response time during teacher hours. If students need additional help with more challenging concepts, they can schedule a phone call for real time one-on-one instruction. During these phone calls, teachers can initiate screen sharing to visually walk through the lesson with students and show how to solve questions visually, step by step. Students can even draw on the screen to confirm they understand it. Your student can see it, hear it, and try it. It’s a powerful way for teachers to assess where your child needs additional support. This package offers extended payment plans and includes the cost of AP courses and the required AP textbooks in the standard tuition price. The Gold package starts at $2,500 for elementary students, $3,000 for middle school, and $3,500 for high school.
The Platinum Package:
For families looking for high teacher responses times and grading, the Platinum Package stands out. This package features extended phone support with teachers, additional screen share availability, and the cost of AP and Concurrent Courses built into the tuition.
The Diamond Package:
Our top priority support plan is the Diamond Package. This package is designed for those looking for the perfect hybrid between a competitive brick and mortar private school and a seamless online learning experience. Diamond students can take as many AP, Dual Enrollment courses, and unique world languages at no additional charge. All available add-on products are also included, such as an early start to the school year, an extension into the summer, standardized testing, and a counselor who assists in researching requirements of universities and develops a plan specific for your student’s desired universities.
The Diamond Package includes priority teacher support through all of the available channels: messaging, phone, video, and screen share. This package is designed for parents who wish to take the guesswork out of homeschooling and for students who don’t have time to wait for a response, such as students with strict schedules like student athletes, or those needing to progress at a faster pace.
The Diamond Package is also college and career oriented. It includes extended counselor hours and through the personalized counseling assistance provided, this package optimizes a student’s chances of being accepted into the university of their choice. Students in the Diamond Package are also placed at the front of the line for tutoring requests, so response times generally range between 30 and 45 minutes. Also, Diamond students receive graded assignments within 24 hours of submission. In this package, Enlightium Academy faculty and staff will do everything in our power to meet and exceed what you would expect out of any educational environment. Simply let us know how we can best serve you.
Our Diamond Package starts at $5,000 for elementary, $6,000 for middle school, and $7,000 for high school.
PreK–2 is our book-based parent-led program for students in preschool through 2nd grade. In this program, parents take the role as teacher and work with our primary school coordinator each month to ensure that there is an adequate pace of the student’s progression through the curriculum. Parents will also receive tips and best practices that can help resolve challenge areas, strategize regarding supplemental resources, and evaluate the submitted grades with the corresponding work samples that are provided on a regular basis. The books are included in the standard tuition and the pricing starts at $850 for preschool and kindergarten and $1,050 for 1st and 2nd grade. When two students in the same household enroll in the same grade level, customized pricing options are available.
The Bronze Package:
The Bronze program is a parent-led program and only available for students in grades 3–5. It is was designed for parents who wish to take the initiative of educating their own children using Christian-based curriculum. Parental involvement is key, as parents provide the primary academic support for their children, and also have the potential for receiving access to the solution manuals, while our teachers grade the assignments. This program is designed for stay-at-home parents who have had teaching experience in the past and are ready to take on the responsibility of helping their students each day.
Is the Bronze package available for students with English as a Second Language (ESL) or English Language Learners (ELL)?
The Bronze package is not available for ESL/ELL students as they need more support from EA faculty.
Are students only admitted during certain times of the year?
EA offers an open enrollment, which means that students can start a school year at any time during the year as long as students fulfill requirements by the end of second semester or summer school. More time can be offered beyond summer school upon administrative approval.
When does the school year begin?
School year start dates can be found on EA’s calendar.
Can I homeschool in my state?
EA utilizes nationally accredited Christian curriculum that is approved in all 50 states. Some states do require additional notifications, verification, and/or updates such as a letter of intent to homeschool, verification of enrollment, and/or records of the student's progress throughout the year, with which we are more than happy to assist!
Please note that many states recognize online schooling as a traditional school since teachers provide instructions; this means that in some states no verification will be needed for your student. Search online for your state’s online private school/homeschool requirements and/or speak with your local school district superintendent. Enlightium Academy also offers a blog series on individual state requirements with a new state added every month! You may contact Mrs. Kolb at email@example.com if you need any supporting documentation, such as the Verification of Enrollment.
I homeschooled my students. What should I do when applying to Enlightium Academy?
You need to collect any recent standardized test results (if available), core subject test grades (at least one per quarter), sample essays, projects, and major assignments that your student did within the past year. In some situations, more supporting documents might be required. Please organize your documentation by subject: math, English, history, science, etc. Your student’s EA counselor will also need to know the name of the curriculum that you used. You can then provide this information to the EA admissions team during the enrollment process. Your student’s counselor may reach out to you if he or she has any questions.
I do not know if online learning is the right fit for my student. May I talk to someone?
Our academic consultants are available Monday through Friday, 5:00 am to 4:00 pm PST (8:00 am to 7:00 pm ET). Please call 866-488-4818 option 1 to speak with an EA academic consultant. We look forward to discussing your student's educational needs.
Is Enlightium Academy accredited?
Enlightium Academy is a private school accredited by both AdvancED and ACSI and thus credits awarded by EA are accepted at any K-12 school, college, or university nationwide, and are recognized internationally. Enlightium Academy is accredited, licensed, and approved by the following organizations:
- Accredited by AdvancED
- Accredited by Association of Christian Schools International (ACSI)
- Approved by National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)
- Homeschool.com Seal of Approval
- College Board for Advanced Placement (AP); CEEB (School) Code: 481292
- National Honor Society/National Junior High Society
- Merit Scholar Society
- Enlightium Academy is using the Ignitia curriculum that is accredited by the North Central Association (NCA)
- Virginia Council for Private Education
- Approved for Dual Enrollment at Northwest Nazarene University
How quickly can students work through curriculum?
While there is flexibility in doing schoolwork at home, Enlightium Academy requires 180 school days of instruction for each school year. It is especially important to meet these requirements at the high school level in order to receive credits. Students can complete their courses over a shorter period of time by occasionally increasing hours of study, working on the weekends, or adding a summer session. Students usually spend about 30 to 60 minutes per subject per day in order to finish their school work by the end of first and second semesters.
What courses are offered at Enlightium Academy?
The core online curriculum for 3rd–12th graders covers over 40 courses including math, science, history, English, and Bible. Core electives include music, technology, world languages, business, physical fitness, and more. We offer college preparatory courses and webinars alongside the national standard in college-preparatory software, Naviance, to walk parents through the process of getting involved early in their child's long-term educational goals. We also offer world languages through several platforms that include languages such as Spanish, French, German, Mandarin, Japanese, and Latin. This is totaling over 75 courses to choose from for meeting your child's unique skills.
Can students use another curriculum?
Full-time 3rd–12th grade students use the Enlightium Academy online curriculum called Ignitia. High school students may, for an additional fee, include outside courses. Outside courses must be pre-approved by a counselor and cannot be offered in Ignitia. PreK–2nd grade students utilize Horizons textbooks.
Are students enrolled at Enlightium Academy still in control of their own schedule?
One of the benefits of Enlightium Academy is flexibility. Students have the freedom to work during hours that fit their schedule. However, morning hours are recommended. Click here to view EA’s suggested daily planner.
Are there specific times in the day when students need to login?
Students can log in at any time of the day. However, teacher support is available from 8am to 4pm PST). “No school” dates are noted on EA’s calendar.
Does EA provide spiritual encouragement and Biblical guidance for my student?
EA provides various resources for the spiritual development of its students:
- Theology in Action – a resource offered in text, audio, and video formats intended for students and families to engage truth and cultivate hearts and minds for Christianly action. These videos are published weekly on EA’s general Facebook and Family Alliance pages and tackle various topics of spiritual significance. More information can be found on the Theology in Action page.
- Spiritual Life Connection Page – Students are encouraged to log into Enlightium Social where they can join the EA Spiritual Life Connection (SLC) page. The SLC page:
- Keeps students updated on newly released Theology in Action videos
- Provides an avenue for students to engage other students
- Students may ask question about the Bible, God, Jesus, creation, etc.
- Offers sound Biblical answers from EA Chaplain Heath Robertson
- Bible Studies – students gather and interact with one another under the word of God as guided by a member of the EA Spiritual Support team (SST). The SST member and students meet via Zoom and study the word of God together, which provides students with live interaction among peers and meaningful engagement rooted in God’s word. The Bible Studies are semi-monthly per grade level.
- Prayer Support Team – EA is committed to the power of prayer and giving students an opportunity to submit prayer requests. EA staff and faculty join in supplication, thanksgiving, and praise for student requests. The EA Prayer Team follows up with student prayers and praises as well as continually encouraging EA staff and faculty to join our time of prayer each Thursday of the work week.
- Weekly Devotional – The EA school chaplain sends out a weekly devotional through Ignitia’s messaging system for student reflection. These devotionals serve as a way for students to start off each week with God and His word as well as provide students with sound Biblical teaching to prepare their hearts and minds for the week ahead, equipping and empowering their Christian walk.
- Monthly Chapels – Chapels are a time of spiritual development and enrichment through praise, testimony, and a Bible based teaching. Chapels are filmed and offered to students so they too might participate with faculty and staff in the context of formal worship.
- Spiritual Awareness Day – EA sets apart a specific day to recognize and lift up the importance of a Biblical foundation and worldview. This is done through the format of a sermon where a particular relevant topic is engaged on the foundation of Scripture and seeks to give students admonition and clear guidance for the years ahead in service to Christ’s Kingdom. Previous topics for Spiritual Awareness Day have included Daily Living (i.e., Loving God in simplicity amidst a busy generation) and Culture (i.e., Cultivating a Christian culture where you are at).
Is a social aspect of students’ development incorporated into EA’s program?
How can my student develop social skills while enrolled at an online school?
The most important thing that parents should do to ensure that their home-educated children are socialized is to have them be actively involved in home activities, study groups, sports, youth groups, or church activities. At Enlightium, we intentionally provide opportunities for students to be involved with their age group under EA staff supervision. Study suggests that most students who are educated inside the home do not lack social skills and are prevented from the negative socialization that transpire in traditional schools such as teasing, bullying, violence, peer pressure, and gossip which are damaging to social skill development.
To encourage social development, EA offers an exclusive online social platform called Enlightium Social. We built it specifically for students enrolled at EA to provide a safe environment for students to engage with others and share their thoughts, photos, videos, and more. They can join groups of interest, create events, participate in contests for prizes, and more. Added social and academic opportunities are provided through localized events such as spelling bees, Enlightium Social competitions, and by running for a position on our student council to be the voice of our student body and invite further engagement.
Will your program prepare students for college?
Enlightium Academy has been preparing students for colleges and universities since 2003. The EA graduation rate is averaging to 90%, those students who are not able to graduate in June may graduate in December of the same academic year. The Ignitia curriculum utilized by EA equips students with the necessary knowledge and work habits for a challenging post-secondary academic environment. The amount of content required to be mastered daily and the difficulty level of tests and quizzes were fine-tuned to match the expectations of most competitive four-year institutions in the country.
What is the maximum age a student can be to earn their high school diploma?
Enlightium Academy is based out of Washington state, which has a maximum age limit of 21 to receive a diploma. This means that students must obtain their diploma by their 21st birthday.
Students who are working towards a GED can enroll in EA’s GED Preparatory courses that assist in studying for a GED.
Does EA offer Honors diplomas?
Students with a cumulative GPA of 3.50–4.00, in good standing, and after completing the EA graduation requirements on time receive the Honors diploma. Students with a cumulative GPA of 2.00–3.49 receive the academic diploma. Both diplomas are accredited through AdvancED and ACSI.
Are there any fees for obtaining a Diploma for graduating seniors?
There is a $50 fee for an Enlightium Academy diploma certificate and two official transcripts. The diploma fee is $100 for international students. Families typically prepay the diploma fee or spread it out in monthly payments. More information can be found on the High School Diploma page.
Does my student have to be connected to the internet while doing schoolwork?
For students in grades 3–12, the students will need a reliable Internet connection to access the Ignitia curriculum. These students also have the option to print out curriculum with the same information, although they will still need an internet connection to submit work. Learn more about which types of Internet connections work best with Ignitia.
Can I use a satellite internet connection if I live in a remote area?
We do not recommend using satellite internet connections because of occasional reports of difficulty transmitting information to the main server. An ordinary dial-up connection usually works better than a satellite connection. However, if there are no other options, families may try using a satellite connection if they are willing to assume the risk. Learn more about which types of Internet connections work best with Ignitia.
I just submitted the enrollment form. What’s the next step for enrollment?
The steps for enrollment are noted on this page.
Can I start courses while I’m waiting for the counselor to reach out to me?
Absolutely! If you’re a new student in grades 3–12, you’ll have access to the Orientation course. New students in grades 3–8 will be able to start their Bible course at the same time.
How can I send records to Enlightium?
Enlightium Academy accepts report cards electronically from parents and guardians for students in grades 3–8 grades and unofficial transcripts for students in grades 9–12. Please do not send records until after the enrollment form is submitted. You can send records:
- By text: Take a large picture of the documents on your smartphone and text to Mrs. Vogin at firstname.lastname@example.org
- By email: Scan and email to Mrs. Vogin at email@example.com
- By fax: Send to Mrs. Ferguson at 888-317-6571
My school district requires documentation that my student is enrolled with EA. What should I do?
Once your student is enrolled and actively works at least for 30 days, we can email the Verification of Enrollment (VOE) to the party requesting it. Please email Mrs. Kolb at firstname.lastname@example.org with the subject line “VOE”. More information can be found on the Verification of Enrollment page.
Who do I contact if my student will not be able to complete school work due to travel, illness, or another reason?
Please submit an Absence form to report any past or future absences. If the student will be absent for an extended period of time or is frequently absent, make sure to upload supporting documentation when submitting the absence form. Keep in mind that once the student is able to continue working, he or she will be responsible for catching up on any missed assignments. If the student will be unable to catch up due to the length of the absence, please note this on the absence form to request the counselor’s approval to reschedule overdue assignments. These requests are evaluated by the student’s counselor on a case-by-case basis. More information can be found on the Academic Progress & Accountability page.
Why have I not received any emails from Enlightium?
Please look for “EA:” in the subject line of the emails you receive. For example, you may receive emails from our staff titled “EA: Class Assignment Notification” or “EA: Parent Portal Log In”. If you see an email with “EA” in the subject line, please read the email in a timely manner and respond if necessary. If you do not see emails from us and believe that you should be receiving some, please check the spam folder and make sure to whitelist enlightiumacademy.com to receive all emails. You can also give us a call at 866-488-4818 option 7, or reach out to the relevant department outlined on our contact page if you are wondering why you have not had recent communication.